The Olympics, as well as other international events (such as the World Cup, Asian Conference, and Universiade), are subject to doping control. In Japan, the National Athletic Meet has also conducted tests for some time.
What is doping?
Doping means cheating that athletes and racehorses use banned drugs, such as stimulants and muscle enhancers during competition. The implementation of the Olympic doping control testing began with the 1968 Winter Grenoble Games and the Summer Mexican Games.
Purpose of doping control
This is how athletes can compete under equitable conditions, without drug use or cheating. In reality, since the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984, commercialization has progressed, and the wealth and rights and interest have a great influence, there is no end to the number of athletes who violate, and cheating and subsequent enforcement of the ban have been like a cat-and-mouse game. In the past, there have been exceptions, such as unintentional, exhaustion but when in doubt, get punished these days. Doping control testing is a first-class player's card, as you don't complain about the rule that you can't take one cold medicine. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999, and the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) was established in 2001. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) commissions anti-doping activities to these organizations.
The Olympics, as well as their precompetitions, the World Championships, the World Cup, the Asian Conference, the Universiade, and the various championships are doping controlled competitions. Inspections have been conducted not only at international conferences, but also at National Athletic Meet since last year in Japan.
Doping control testing at international conferences
Case of a Japanese player
The first two positive male cases occurred in volleyball at the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984. However, one player at the time was told that the ephedrine contained in Kakkonto, a Chinese herbal medicine that was taken as a cold remedy, was a prohibited drug, but he was able to continue because it was not intentional, and only the trainer who provided the drug was punished. In the second case, testosterone, a male hormone, which was prohibited from the game, was detected. However, because there are individual differences in the amount of testosterone secreted due to hormones present in the body, it was an amount that was not considered excessive, so it was later judged to be acceptable.
What are the doping banned drugs?
1. Stimulants: Cocaine, a narcotic, stimulates the cranial nerves to reduce drowsiness and fatigue. Some stimulants, such as caffeine in coffee, are available. It is important to note that sympathomimetic aminergic stimulants are used for asthma, colds, and nasal congestion. They are also found in herbal medicines and over-the-counter drinks.
2. Anabolic agents: so-called muscle-building agent, and testosterone, a male sex hormone, is well known. There are cases, such as Ben Johnson at the Seoul Olympics, where a gold medal was removed. They are dangerous because they have more side effects and can cause virilization and sudden death in women.
3. Narcotic analgesics: drugs that cause euphoria and anhedonia. They become addictive, and as the effect wears off, withdrawal symptoms develop, resulting in disease.
4. Diuretics: Can be used to reduce weight suddenly or to increase urine volume and dilute a drug in the urine.
5. Peptide hormones and others: Corticosteroid hormones may be present in allergy drugs, eye drops, rhinitis drugs, hair nourishing drugs, skin ointments, and tonic drinks. Caution should be exercised. Recently, violations with erythropoietin (EPO) have increased as it is used to increase oxygen-carrying capacity (endurance).
In addition, there are prohibited drugs in specific competitions, such as alcohol, and drugs for approval, such as local anesthetics. Autologous blood transfusions can also constitute fraud.
For a first violation, all competitions will be suspended for two years. There are exceptions, but coaches and executives may also be punished.
Do not use any drugs or supplements except those prescribed by the accompanying physician or directly checked for at least one month before the meeting. When you go to a doctor, tell the doctor that you may be subjected to doping control testing. Drugs, drinks, and supplements (especially from abroad) available at pharmacies and convenience stores are quite dangerous.
All medications and supplements taken from time to time should be recorded. Any prescription provided by a doctor should be documented by checking the name of the drug. Also, use drugs safely to make sure they are right for yourself, and take responsibility for what you put in your mouth for yourself.
After a match, the person collects his urine in the laboratory, transfers it to two bottles, and then submits it. Since it is done after a match, it is often difficult to perform the tests because urine cannot be produced because of sweating or because urine is collected (as seen by the examiner).
Two urine bottles used for testing
As there is a risk of fraud taken place after the match as it is obvious to conduct the check, spot check examination has been recently carried out. They appear and are checked suddenly at airports and workshops. However, they are indicated for poor-quality drugs, such as muscle enhancers.