Doctor of Medicine, specialist in the Japanese Society of Rehabilitation Medicine, specialist in the Japanese Society of Orthopaedic Surgery, specialist in the Japanese Society of Rheumatology, staff to strengthen JOC, and sports physician certified by the Japan Sports Association
The Olympics, as well as other international events (such as the World Cup, Asian Conference, and Universiade), are subject to doping control. In Japan, the National Athletic Meet has also conducted tests for some time.
What is doping?
Doping means cheating that athletes and racehorses use banned drugs, such as stimulants and muscle enhancers during competition. The implementation of the Olympic doping control testing began with the 1968 Winter Grenoble Games and the Summer Mexican Games.
Purpose of doping control
This is how athletes can compete under equitable conditions, without drug use or cheating. In reality, since the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984, commercialization has progressed, and the wealth and rights and interest have a great influence, there is no end to the number of athletes who violate, and cheating and subsequent enforcement of the ban have been like a cat-and-mouse game. In the past, there have been exceptions, such as unintentional, exhaustion but when in doubt, get punished these days. Doping control testing is a first-class player's card, as you don't complain about the rule that you can't take one cold medicine. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999, and the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) was established in 2001. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) commissions anti-doping activities to these organizations.
The Olympics, as well as their precompetitions, the World Championships, the World Cup, the Asian Conference, the Universiade, and the various championships are doping controlled competitions. Inspections have been conducted not only at international conferences, but also at National Athletic Meet since last year in Japan.
Doping control testing at international conferences
Case of a Japanese player
The first two positive male cases occurred in volleyball at the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984. However, one player at the time was told that the ephedrine contained in Kakkonto, a Chinese herbal medicine that was taken as a cold remedy, was a prohibited drug, but he was able to continue because it was not intentional, and only the trainer who provided the drug was punished. In the second case, testosterone, a male hormone, which was prohibited from the game, was detected. However, because there are individual differences in the amount of testosterone secreted due to hormones present in the body, it was an amount that was not considered excessive, so it was later judged to be acceptable.
What are the doping banned drugs?
1. Stimulants: Cocaine, a narcotic, stimulates the cranial nerves to reduce drowsiness and fatigue. Some stimulants, such as caffeine in coffee, are available. It is important to note that sympathomimetic aminergic stimulants are used for asthma, colds, and nasal congestion. They are also found in herbal medicines and over-the-counter drinks.
2. Anabolic agents: so-called muscle-building agent, and testosterone, a male sex hormone, is well known. There are cases, such as Ben Johnson at the Seoul Olympics, where a gold medal was removed. They are dangerous because they have more side effects and can cause virilization and sudden death in women.
3. Narcotic analgesics: drugs that cause euphoria and anhedonia. They become addictive, and as the effect wears off, withdrawal symptoms develop, resulting in disease.
4. Diuretics: Can be used to reduce weight suddenly or to increase urine volume and dilute a drug in the urine.
5. Peptide hormones and others: Corticosteroid hormones may be present in allergy drugs, eye drops, rhinitis drugs, hair nourishing drugs, skin ointments, and tonic drinks. Caution should be exercised. Recently, violations with erythropoietin (EPO) have increased as it is used to increase oxygen-carrying capacity (endurance).
In addition, there are prohibited drugs in specific competitions, such as alcohol, and drugs for approval, such as local anesthetics. Autologous blood transfusions can also constitute fraud.
For a first violation, all competitions will be suspended for two years. There are exceptions, but coaches and executives may also be punished.
Do not use any drugs or supplements except those prescribed by the accompanying physician or directly checked for at least one month before the meeting. When you go to a doctor, tell the doctor that you may be subjected to doping control testing. Drugs, drinks, and supplements (especially from abroad) available at pharmacies and convenience stores are quite dangerous.
All medications and supplements taken from time to time should be recorded. Any prescription provided by a doctor should be documented by checking the name of the drug. Also, use drugs safely to make sure they are right for yourself, and take responsibility for what you put in your mouth for yourself.
After a match, the person collects his urine in the laboratory, transfers it to two bottles, and then submits it. Since it is done after a match, it is often difficult to perform the tests because urine cannot be produced because of sweating or because urine is collected (as seen by the examiner).
Two urine bottles used for testing
As there is a risk of fraud taken place after the match as it is obvious to conduct the check, spot check examination has been recently carried out. They appear and are checked suddenly at airports and workshops. However, they are indicated for poor-quality drugs, such as muscle enhancers.
NATA certified athletic trainers, certified athletic trainers from the Japan Physical Education Association, and chairman of the Japan Core Conditioning Association (JCCA)
What is doping?
Since it is contrary to the spirit of fair play, the entire world and sports community prohibit doping, and there are also competitions with strict penalties. Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods are stipulated in the International Prohibited Standards (Prohibited List) of the World Anti-Doping Code and are updated at least on January 1 of each year. There are several categories, including substances that are always prohibited, substances that are prohibited only during competitions, and substances that are prohibited during certain competitions. Please check the latest information at all times at the following sites.
Japan Anti-Doping Organization Home Page: http://www.playtruejapan.org/
Do not use any drugs or supplements except those prescribed by the accompanying doctor or those directly checked for at least one month before the meeting. When you go to a doctor, tell the doctor that you may be subjected to doping control testing. It is important to be cautious about drugs, drinks, and supplements (especially foreign products) available in pharmacies and convenience stores.
Document everything you drink as a medicine or supplement. Any prescription made by your doctor should be documented by checking the name of the drug. You should also be able to safely find your own medicines on your own, and you should be responsible for what you are putting in your mouth and for what you use on your body. It may be as well to prevent yourself from taking an OTC drug, especially cold medicine.
After a match, the person collects his urine in the laboratory, transfers it to two bottles, and then submits it. After a competition resulting in heavy sweating, the person may have difficulty urinating, may feel pressured by the examiner, and testing is often time-consuming.
Out-of-competition tests (e.g., athletes selected by the national team)
When you become an athlete on the national team, you will be registered with the RTP. Once you are registered, you will need to submit location information of three months in every quarter through the Internet's Anti-Doping Management and Operating System (ADAMS) to prove that you are clean by receiving out-of-competition tests without prior notification. Location information must be provided in detail, such as location of residence, accommodation, training locations, and competitions. In addition, it is also mandatory to specify a "60-minute time frame" that specifies the time and location that can always be available for the examination. If the athlete cannot be the time and place specified on the “60-minute time frame” (unfinished check) or the location information is not submitted by the deadline or updated (violation of the obligation to submit) a total of three times over a 12-month period, a "violation of the anti-doping rule" could result in a suspension of qualifications for one to two years.
Until recently, doping was not familiar to general athletes. That was done by members of national teams in particular levels, or unless one was involved in the Olympics or the Asian Convention, it seemed to be irrelevant. The doping was thought to be something happened beyond the screen.
Doping has recently been carried out at a conference in Japan. I feel that doping, which I thought was done by someone else, was going to happen suddenly in front of my eyes. Even if you understand it rationally, you will not feel normal if you are likely to be at the center as a witness, stop going to competitions, lose a medal, and suffer accusations from others.
Above all, it is important for the player to learn and understand doping properly and be prepared avoid making any mistake. In team sports, all staff members, including directors, coaches, trainers, and nutritionists, should cooperate and support the players. Individual sports require considerable levels of self-management, but younger generations may also need the understanding and cooperation of their parents, especially their mothers.
Specifically, the first step is to record all foods, fluids, supplements, and drugs taken in daily records, such as a practice diary. (The over-the-counter cold remedy is NG, as mentioned above), both purchased in a convenience store and purchased in a town drug store, are recorded, as are all prescriptions from a doctor. At this point, you may not care about which is a banned drug, but it is important first to keep a record. Please refer to the link below for the latest information.